The pressure of military and commercial competition between the actual or aspirant Great Powers forced those which were still absolutist states based on the feudal mode of production – or at least those which were capable of doing so – to adopt the current stage of development achieved by their capitalist rivals.
This was necessary if they were to have any chance, not only of successfully competing, but of surviving at the summit of the world order.
The ultimately disastrous outcome for the Chinese working class movement was the catalyst for Trotsky to generalise the strategy of permanent revolution from Russia to sections of the colonial and semi-colonial world.
This was not done indiscriminately – since some were still untouched by capitalist development and had no working class of any size – but applied to those places where conditions similar to those in Russia prevailed.
Colonial rule could even throw societies backwards, as in the case of British-occupied Iraq.
Strategies To Alleviate Uneven Development Essay
Ruling through the Hashemite monarchy after 1920, the regime deliberately rejected any attempts at modernisation, except in the oil industry.
In very compressed timespans they had been able to adopt the socio-economic achievements of Britain to the extent that they became recognisably the same kind of societies, without necessarily reproducing every characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon pioneer.
Where backwardness remained it tended to be in the nature of the political regimes led by monarchs or emperors supported by a landowning aristocracy.
Introduction The radical novelty of what Trotsky meant by uneven and combined development is often underestimated.
The most common mistake is to reduce it to, or confuse it with, the longstanding theory of uneven development.