Stanley Milgram Essay

Stanley Milgram Essay-78
Martin's take on the origins of the politics of obedience, the will to bondage, the will to voluntary servitude. As the simultaneous appearance in 1975 of competing translations of Etienne de La Boetie's essay in political philosophy suggests, the '70s was a time when such ideas were "in the air," a time when many people were drawn to consider and discuss such ideas.

First, several of Milgram's former students and others spoke on their most vivid experiences with him at CUNY or Yale: Henry Solomon, Kathryn Hahner, Eva Fogelman, Harold Takooshian, Pearl Beck. Edward Price was a Yale undergraduate in 1962 who recalled his experience as one of the first subjects in Milgram's Yale experiment on obedience.

Filmmaker Edward English spoke about his filmmaking experience with Milgram at Yale in 1963, producing “Obedience to Authority,” the most widely seen classroom film in the history of psychology. Psychologist David Mantell shared his replications of Milgram's experiment at Princeton and the Max Planck Institute in Munich.

Why do people, in all times and places, obey the commands of the government, which always constitutes a small minority of the society?

"La Boetie saw, Rothbard wrote, thatevery tyranny must necessarily be grounded upon general popular acceptance.

In short, the bulk of the people themselves, for whatever reason, acquiesce in their own subjection.

If this were not the case, no tyranny, indeed no governmental rule, could long endure.And his considered opinion was that schools, in particular, persuaded nobody of anything."They largely succeed," he wrote, "in entrenching sentiments already there in the people they process, though they may develop adversaries by awakening contradictory reactions among those temperamentally hostile to what they are exposed to." This is why "the members of libertarian persuasions remain at just about the same levels year after year relative to the total community, despite the most wondrous attempts via literature, communication and action to swell them." The plain fact is, Martin insisted, that those "who crave the comforts and security of subordination outnumber the 'free souls,' and there is no credible evidence that this relationship is likely to change in any appreciable degree now or at any calculable time in the future."That was James J.Hence, a government does not have to be popularly elected to enjoy general public support; for general public support is in the very nature of all governments that endure, including the most oppressive of tyrannies.The tyrant is but one person, and could scarcely command the obedience of another person, much less of an entire country, if most of the subjects did not grant their obedience by their own consent.This forum coincided with the national release of Almereyda's film and began with three background film clips of Milgram and his work.Then a dozen experts spoke briefly on one of three themes: Stanley Milgram—the man, his work and the film about his legacy.Philosopher Edward Erdos described his published research identifying the “Milgram trap"” in obedience.Professor Stuart Levine described a course on Stanley Milgram that he introduced at Bard College.Buku ini secara ajaib menjadi rujukan mata kuliah "baru" di Psikologi UI: Psikologi Perkotaan (Urban).Lebih jauh, justru saya merasa agak terharu ketika membaca kata pengantar Philip Zimbardo di buku ini.


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