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This is particularly relevant within areas which are within commutable distance to major cities, due to high costs of living in the cities as well as the perception that rural areas are significantly better for raising children. 6) argue that technological advancements, such as the internet, have further perpetuated the decentralisation of urban life, with communication significantly improving in even the most remote areas; allowing people to have ‘easier and more reliable access to information and services’. 176) reports that there has been a failure to develop rural areas sufficiently, causing high urbanization rates resulting in unemployment and housing shortages in large cities; questioning whether the rate of urbanization has been ‘beneficial or detrimental to economic growth’.
If sociology is the study of society and its social problems, rural sociology focuses predominantly upon the existence of these within rural environments, often focusing on the countryside (Karalay 2005 p. This stereotypical view of rural society being harmonious has also resulted in a failure to recognise the impact of industrialisation upon the sociology of agriculture, and the isolation often experienced by adults in remote rural areas (Scott 2014 p. The former refers to the impact that technological advancements have had upon the practice of agriculture, or the Agricultural Revolution.
Whilst this has significantly increased the abilities of farmers to support a larger number of people and created a surplus of the availability of food, specifically in Western areas, it has also impacted upon climate change and employment rates in rural areas (Volti 2011 p. Whereas, urban sociology is mostly associated with the structure of a city or town as well as the social interaction between the people that live there (Peggs 2012 p. 389) defines urbanization as the ‘process of the movement’ of people from rural areas across to urban areas with cities becoming the major centres of population.
Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
An introduction to the sociology of work and occupations.
However, it has also highlighted a number of the social problems which are indiscriminately impacted upon by location.
The assignment has clearly supported the perception that there has been a decline in the relevance of rural sociology since the Industrial Revolution, however, it has yet to lose all credibility regardless of the developments made in a postmodern society.
Although urban communities are fundamentally developed from rural habitats, there is a number of ‘glaring differences in every aspect of life’ (Sharma 1997 p. For example, the distinctive characteristics of an urban society is noted as being the ‘substitution of secondary for primary contacts’; the weakening of kinship; decline in the role of the family; lack of neighbourhood and community; and an ‘undermining of the traditional basis of social solidarity’ (Lin and Mele 2012 p. 76) proposes that urban societies have become more meritocratic, offering its citizens the chance to reach their full potential, suggesting that rural areas are premised upon a traditional value system which offers little room for change. 319) that the ‘veiled hatred and contempt’ for the modern industrial society resulted in Tonnies work often being disputed due to its generalised nature.
Louis Wirth (1938) perceived the defining characteristics of a city as being population size and density as well as social diversity; proposing that the combination of thus have resulted in a ‘distinctive urban way of life’ (Fulcher and Scott 2011 p. Wirth’s theory has been noted to be a seminal piece discussing urbanisation, proposing that he perceived this to be something which would spread to all areas; fearing that it was a ‘socially disruptive’ process, a threat to the moral values of citizens, that would result in a lack of community and ‘underlying consensus’ (Slattery 2002 p. Additionally, he perceived urbanism as being separate from accounts of capitalism, industrialism or modernity and failed to acknowledge how such concepts are intertwined and dependent of each other (Magnusson 2013 p. Tonnie’s (1957) analysis of the impact of the industrial revolution suggested that the disruption caused by people moving to the city led to an increase in ‘large-scale, impersonal, calculative and contractual relationships’; at the expense of community (Hillyard 2007 p. His theory consisted of a comparison between gemeinschaftlich, communal solidarity, and gesellschaftlich including relations of calculative and contractual natures, and is often critiqued due to his depiction of historical communities to be romantic and ideal (Scott 2007 p. Similarly, Simmel (1903) proposed that there were significant differences within human interaction in city life in comparison to rural areas, suggesting that people are more likely to be emotionally reserved and individualistic, proposing that the development of such skills allows them to ‘cope with the multiple demands of urban life’ (Stolley 2005 p. He suggested that urban life leaves citizens ‘bombarded’ with ‘images, impressions, sensations and activities’ resulted in them becoming blasé and disinterested with others, exacerbating the emotional distance between themselves and others (Giddens 2006 p. This change in the socially cohesive nature of pre-industrial society was also discussed by Emilie Durkheim (1897), however, his work was not solely from a pessimistic perspective and he argued that this was just a change in the social bonds and relationships (Hillyard 2007 p.10).
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Do the urban and rural spheres remain socially distinct in any ways?