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In this context, the analysis of IRS data is an important new contribution to understanding the demographics and economic characteristics of same-sex married couples in the U. during a period of political importance and major shifts in civil rights. he authors did not receive financial support from any firm or person for this article or from any firm or person with a financial or political interest in this article.They are currently not an officer, director, or board member of any organization with an interest in this article.
What about the gap between same-sex couples and their different-sex peers?
For 2015 filers nationwide between the ages of 25 and 55, average household incomes for male same-sex couples was higher than household incomes of different-sex couples.
When compared with different-sex couples filing jointly, the analysis reveals that same-sex joint filers are generally younger, higher income, and less likely to claim dependent children.
In 2015, 48 percent of different-sex couples claimed children as dependents, compared with 28 percent of female-female couples and just 7 percent of male-male couples.
Figure 1 compares the number of same-sex filers by state of residence in 2013—the year of the decision—with those filing jointly in 2015 when same-sex marriage was recognized nationwide.
The states are grouped according to the year same-sex marriages was legalized in that state—either by a state-specific action in 2013 or 2014, or by default after the decision in 2015.Indeed, in previous decades, Census assumed that couples who reported being in same-sex relationships had checked the wrong box on the Decennial Census and other Census surveys.Further complicating the matter, many sample-based estimates not only lack statistical power to measure with precision the number or characteristics of smaller populations, such as the population of same-sex couples or gay and lesbian individuals, but also include measurement errors that poses particular challenges in identifying same-sex couples amidst the much larger population of different-sex couples.The authors estimate that about 250,450 same-sex couples filed joint tax returns in 2015.Over the prior two years, the number of same-sex filers increased by about 40 percent each year, from about 131,080 filers in 2013 and 183,280 in 2014.Male-male couples earned about 8,233 and different-sex couples earned about 9,803.That’s a gain of about ,000 for male-male couples.“This wage gap between male and female same-sex couples partially reflects factors that are obvious in the data, like the concentration of male couples in higher-cost areas, and the much larger share of female couples with child care responsibilities,” Looney says.“But those factors—or others, like education or occupation—are unlikely to explain all of the remaining wage gap, which most economists attribute to a combination of labor market discrimination and a wage penalty for taking time out of the labor market for child-rearing or for part-time work.” The Supreme Court rulings culminated a period of rapid changes in the legal recognition and rights of same-sex couples.The fact that both parents have a biological connection to the child would increase the likelihood that the parents would identify with the child and be willing to sacrifice for that child, and it would reduce the likelihood that either parent would abuse the child. " Elizabeth Marquardt reports that children of divorce often report similar feelings about their non-custodial parent, usually the father. If same-sex civil marriage becomes common, most same-sex couples with children would be lesbian couples.Sara Mc Lanahan and Gary Sandefur, Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1994) 38. Kyle Pruett, Fatherneed (Broadway Books, 2001) 204. This would mean that we would have yet more children being raised apart from fathers.