Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients.That is the role of the staff nurses, who, like teachers, have their own “hierarchy of seniority” (p. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients (nurse manager), teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit (clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician), and policy-making (nurse clinician).
This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.
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The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. The staff nurses, in contrast, This paraphrase is a patchwork composed of pieces in the original author’s language (in red) and pieces in the student-writer’s words, all rearranged into a new pattern, but with none of the borrowed pieces in quotation marks.When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented.If you use an author’s specific word or words, you must place those words within quotation marks and you must credit the source.Thus, even though the writer acknowledges the source of the material, the underlined phrases are falsely presented as the student’s own.In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase (1995) also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others.The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase.The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility.The writer has documented Chase’s material and specific language (by direct reference to the author and by quotation marks around language taken directly from the source).The method below is not only a way to create a paraphrase but also a way to understand a difficult text.Consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on motherhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her major arguments: You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory paraphrase.