Standardized tests have been developed to assess the degree to which a person possesses such dispositions and abilities.
Educational intervention has been shown experimentally to improve them, particularly when it includes dialogue, anchored instruction, and mentoring.
Controversies have arisen over the generalizability of critical thinking across domains, over alleged bias in critical thinking theories and instruction, and over the relationship of critical thinking to other types of thinking.
active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it, and the further conclusions to which it tends.
Educational jurisdictions around the world now include critical thinking in guidelines for curriculum and assessment.
Political and business leaders endorse its importance.“I then tried to imagine all possible purposes of the pole, and to consider for which of these it was best suited: (a) Possibly it was an ornament.But as all the ferryboats and even the tugboats carried poles, this hypothesis was rejected.It suggested a flagpole when I first saw it; its color, shape, and gilded ball agreed with this idea, and these reasons seemed to justify me in this belief. The pole was nearly horizontal, an unusual position for a flagpole; in the next place, there was no pulley, ring, or cord by which to attach a flag; finally, there were elsewhere on the boat two vertical staffs from which flags were occasionally flown.It seemed probable that the pole was not there for flag-flying.In 1987, the APA’s Committee on Pre-College Philosophy commissioned a consensus statement on critical thinking for purposes of educational assessment and instruction (Facione 1990a).Researchers have developed standardized tests of critical thinking abilities and dispositions; for details, see the Supplement on Assessment.(b) Possibly it was the terminal of a wireless telegraph. Besides, the more natural place for such a terminal would be the highest part of the boat, on top of the pilot house.(c) Its purpose might be to point out the direction in which the boat is moving.“Critical thinkers” have the dispositions and abilities that lead them to think critically when appropriate.The abilities can be identified directly; the dispositions indirectly, by considering what factors contribute to or impede exercise of the abilities.