No research has ever been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit.
Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved.
Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.
Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework.
Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep.
Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students' family and leisure time.
Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students, especially lower-achieving students.
Homework also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing, working, sleeping, or in other activities.
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Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class.