Critics also wonder why anger/hate is more punishable than other motives such as greed.Although there has been (and still is) debate about hate crime laws, the mere fact that they exist in several countries around the world, as well as within the United States, indicates that reasoning in favor of these laws has outweighed that against them.The Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997 requires college and university campus security authorities to collect and report data on crimes committed on the basis of the victim’s race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and disability.
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 requires that the U. Sentencing Commission enhance criminal penalties (up to 30%) for offenders who commit a federal crime that was motivated by the victim’s race, religion, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation. The first, the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990, requires that the U. Attorney General collect data on all crimes that are motivated by the victim’s race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or disability.
Since 1992, the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have jointly published hate crime statistics on an annual basis.
For example, about 70% of the states also include gender and sexual orientation, while fewer include disability, political affiliation, or age.
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The states also differ in the subordinate groups that transform a general crime to a hate crime and as to what degree this bias must be shown (e.g., beliefs, character).
All state statutes include at least race, religion, and ethnicity, but differ on inclusion of other subordinate groups.Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.The current federal hate crime law permits federal prosecution of crimes committed based upon the victim’s race, color, religion, or nation of origin when the victim is engaging in a federally protected activity (e.g., attending a public school; working at a place of employment).The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crime Prevention Act of 2007 (i.e., the Matthew Shepard Act), which is under consideration as of this writing, would extend the existing federal hate crime law to include crimes based upon the victim’s gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and disability, and would drop the existing requirement that the victim be involved in a federally protected activity.Some laws also include sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, and disability.The federal hate crime system includes laws, acts, and data collection statutes.Introduction Racial violence, has always been a significant problem despite the enactment of numerous laws and regulations by the state.As a result, such violence raises fundamental issues that relate to economic development and overall American security. Although there are variations in definition, and certainly variations among state hate crime laws, in general a hate crime is considered to be an illegal act against a person, institution, or property that is motivated (in whole or in part) by the offender’s prejudice against the victim’s group membership status. Since then, members of all immigrant groups have been subjected to discrimination, harassment, and violence.