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When you start your background research, one of the early steps is finding and reading the scientific literature related to your science project (see the Roadmap: How to Get Started On an Advanced Science Project article for more details on project steps).
are sources that analyze, interpret, or summarize (such as biographies, critical analyses, literary criticism, interpretations, textbooks, books or articles written by non-participants, encyclopedias, etc.) Information is everywhere.
But you should use reliable sources for your papers.
Universities and colleges often subscribe to academic search engines.
If you can't find what you need using a free search engine, you may be able to access these resources from computers in a university or college library.
Note: The results of academic search engines come in the form of an abstract, which you can read to determine if the paper is relevant to your science project, as well as a full citation (author, journal title, volume, page numbers, year, etc.) so that you can find a physical copy of the paper.
Search engines do not necessarily contain the full text of the paper for you to read.Keep in mind that you can also use other libraries besides the Butte College Library, such as Butte County Public Library, Chico State University Library, and other online resources from other libraries (Internet Public Libraries, Library of Congress, etc.) You can also borrow books and articles from other libraries through our Start your research at the library!The Butte College Library maintains its print and digital collections to support student learning and research.Quality and reliability of information varies greatly.Information is unstable as it can be changed and pulled out without notice.If the search engine doesn't, or if you got the citation somewhere else, like the bibliography of another science paper you were reading, there are several ways to find copies.Searching for Newer Papers (published during Internet era) Searching for Older Papers (published pre-Internet era) Even with all of the above searching methods, you may not be able to find a free copy of the paper online.There are a handful of free, publicly available academic search engines that can be accessed online; some of these are listed in Table 1, below.The remainder, like the ISI Web of Science, are subscription-based.Make sure the sources you use meet your instructor's requirements.Sources of information can be classified into two broad categories: primary and secondary sources.