The overall success of treatment depends partly on the technical success of the surgery, but more crucially on the psychological adjustment of the trans identified person and the support from family, friends, employers and the medical profession.
Nakatsuka (2012) noted that the 3rd versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender dysphoria (GD) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology recommends that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 years old and 20 years old, respectively.
The criterion noted above for some types of genital surgeries – i.e., that patients engage in 12 continuous months of living in a gender role that is congruent with their gender identity – is based on expert clinical consensus that this experience provides ample opportunity for patients to experience and socially adjust in their desired gender role, before undergoing irreversible surgery (Coleman, et al., 2011).
In addition to hormone therapy and gender reassignment surgery, psychological adjustments are necessary in affirming sex.
For male to female gender reassignment, surgical procedures may include genital reconstruction (vaginoplasty, penectomy, orchidectomy, clitoroplasty) and cosmetic surgery (breast implants, facial reshaping, rhinoplasty, abdominoplasty, thyroid chondroplasty (laryngeal shaving), voice modification surgery (vocal cord shortening), hair transplants) (Day, 2002).
For female to male gender reassignment, surgical procedures may include mastectomy, genital reconstruction (phalloplasty, genitoplasty, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy), mastectomy, and cosmetic procedures to enhance male features such as pectoral implants and chest wall recontouring (Day, 2002).D.) whereas male to female (MTF) trans identified individuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 /- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters.After confirmation of strong and persistent trans gender identification, adolescents with GD should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters.Treatment should focus on psychological adjustment, with hormone therapy and gender reassignment surgery being viewed as confirmatory procedures dependent on adequate psychological adjustment.Mental health care may need to be continued after gender reassignment surgery.The authors concluded that transgender persons seeking hormonal therapy are being seen with increasing frequency.The dysphoria present in many transgender persons is associated with significant mood disorders that interfere with successful careers.Gender-specific services may be medically necessary for transgender persons appropriate to their anatomy.Examples include: Aetna considers gonadotropin-releasing hormone medically necessary to suppress puberty in trans identified adolescents if they meet World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) criteria (see CPB 0501 - Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogs and Antagonists).Awareness of the condition appears to be increasing, probably because of greater societal acceptance and available hormonal treatment.Therapeutic options include hormone and surgical treatments but may be limited by insurance coverage because costs are high.