Emotional Essays

Emotional Essays-38
Theoretically, intelligence has been approached from a wide variety of positions.advanced the idea that there are a number of factors which make up intelligence.

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The theories of Spearman (1923), Thurstone (1938) and Cattell (1963) have all been brought together in a hierarchical model by Carroll (1986).Thurstone (1938) did, however, use the same method of factor analysis and came up with seven factors - numerical ability, perceptual speed, memory, spatial ability, inductive reasoning, verbal meaning and verbal fluency - but not a general factor, although all these factors were correlated with each other.While many of the factor analyses of intelligences used similar measures, Cattell (1963) approached the matter in a different way, distinguishing between fluid intelligence and crystallised intelligence.Indeed some researchers claim that these six basic emotions find their genesis in the basic types of interactions that humans have with each other and this explains why they have developed independently in different cultures (Ekman, 1994).Early theories of how the experience of emotions is produced emphasised a causal connection between physiological changes and the feelings experienced.It is as though all these levels of intelligence are based on one other over-arching factor: called 'g'.Early studies found that the correlations were fairly low and so this theory has not stood the test of time.In the first part of the 20th century psychologists tended to concentrate on reasoning, problem-solving ability and thinking, while latterly it has come to include other skills and abilities such as being good at understanding other people.There is certainly an element in the best definitions of the word intelligence of an ability to deal with the world effectively, although, this is clearly a very broad definition.It is this breadth in the way of seeing intelligence that is the strength of the theory and, with its concentration on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors, starts to create links towards emotional factors.Criticisms of Gardner's theory have focussed on the fact that intelligences tend to be correlated with one another, suggesting they are not independent factors.


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