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In this review, I discuss the role of African institutions in general and pre-colonial institutions in particular in explaining present-day African poverty. Six of the most often cited explanations of African poverty -- geography, ethnolinguistic fractionalization, the slave trades, colonial rule, underdevelopment, and failed aid -- operate largely through institutions. Colonialism and underdevelopment in East Africa: the politics of economic change, 1919-1939.
Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.
States and markets: The advantage of an early start.
Understanding long-run African growth: Colonial institutions or colonial education?
Can the nature of pre-colonial institutions explain governance quality in Africa?
An empirical exploration into the historical causes of Africa's underdevelopment.
what explains state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa. Political topographies of the African state: Territorial authority and institutional choice. The conditions of agricultural growth: The economics of agrarian change under population pressure. History, institutions, and economic performance: The legacy of colonial land tenure systems in India. In Eighth Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa. Analytic Development Narratives, Princeton University Press, Princeton. Reversal of fortune: Geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution. When things fell apart: state failure in late-century Africa. Taxes, institutions and local governance: evidence from a natural experiment in colonial Nigeria. The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the ght against poverty. Colonisation, school and development in Africa: An empirical analysis.